A brief study of insurgent movements, rebellions, and rebel organizations shows a common pattern, fracture. For those engaging in counter-insurgency this could seem like a good thing. However, if an organization splinters during peace negotiations, it can nullify progress. In Insurgent Fragmentation in the Horn of Africa: Rebellion and its Discontents, Michael Woldemariam explores "why, and under what conditions, do rebel organizations fragment?"
When most of us think of refugees, we probably consider the recent crisis stemming from Syria's civil war, the resettlement debates in the United States and Europe, or we might even have a mental picture of a prison-like refugee camp in a remote part of a country.
The creation of a credit bureau is a complex legal, regulatory, financial, and infrastructural undertaking, often taking 5-7 years to develop from inception to operation.
When lenders face challenges like moral hazard, adverse selection, and weak contract enforcement, they will do their best to mitigate them.
Whether providing high-interest loans in informal markets, or billion dollar loans to multinational corporations, lenders everywhere face the same challenge - gaining enough information about borrowers to mitigate the risk of non-performing loans.